Water management in high-rise buildings or buildings in hill areas:

It is a well-known fact that in a high-rise building or in a building of a hill area, the water pressure (Total Pressure = Static Pressure + Dynamic Pressure) and its associated flow rate; at the downstream of a water tap (water faucet), increases, in proportion, with increase of height difference between the location of water source (Overhead water tank; which is generally being installed at roof top of said building or at the highest peak in the said hill area) and the location of said water tap (water outlet). For example, if height difference between the overhead tank and tap is about 10 meter, then water pressure at downstream of a tap would be about 1 kg/cm2.
From practice, it has been observed that this excessive water pressure and flow rate, results in wastage of precious potable water, which is a very precious commodity on this planet and need to be saved by all ways & means.
At present, in high-rise buildings, to handle the problem of excessive water pressure and flow rate at lower floors; PRVs (Pressure Reducing Valve) are being installed at every entry point, from where water connection enters into a dwelling unit (water connection – entry point). Generally, in a dwelling unit, number of these entry points is equal to the number of bathrooms.

But from practice, it has been observed that in a dwelling unit, even installation of PRV at every entry point; does not solve following problems:

  1. Availability of excessive flow rate at downstream of all taps (water outlet); because a PRV, installed at an entry point results in reduction of static pressure to a desired level (a part of total pressure), only and not in reducing of total pressure.
  2. Un-equal water distribution at downstream of water taps; whenever, two or more water taps are being used for water collection, simultaneously.

From practice, it has also been observed that in buildings of a hill area; none of the water management device is being used because; PRV is a costly device (with frequent repair requirements and limited useful life). Also, in hill areas, most of the people are of weaker financial status living at below the poverty line i.e. at the base of pyramid.
Present device, kills the total water pressure and the associated flow rate, in almost equal proportions, simultaneously. This device needs to be installed at the back of every tap (or any other water outlet like a tap or shower etc.).
As this device, kills the total water pressure and associated flow rate, simultaneously; it solves both above problems, which are being faced by the consumers using PRVs.
Present device, is much economical than a PRV; therefore can easily be used by users living in hill areas too, besides people living in other areas. Present device has potential to save 30-50% of water and thus in savings of equal amount in water bills and cost of electricity (used for pumping, heating of water).
From practice, it has been observed that a flow rate of about 6-8 liter/minute is sufficient enough to meet all domestic requirements of a consumer.
Present device can be designed to deliver a flow rate of 6-8 liter/minute or more at a given inlet pleasure of 2 kg/cm2 or more.